Genesis 1 Notes

The Creation (Overview)

The fundamental objection, at least the only one that I consider serious, to a literal 6–day creation event approximately 6,000 years ago is the issue of starlight from vast distances. I do not think that God created light already on its way from various stellar objects as if they were as old as they appear. If that is true then we are not actually seeing the true objects that generated that light, but sort of a hologram. A false image. God is Truth.

D. Russell Humphreys, in his book, Starlight and Time,[i] proposes a white hole cosmogony that fits both the idea of a billion-year old universe with a 6-day creation of the earth only 6,000 years ago. A white hole would send out matter and energy similar to how a black hole draws in matter and energy.[ii] Time, due to gravitational warping, would be different with respect to being inside and outside the event horizons of both a black and white hole. According to Einstein’s theory of relativity, the perspective of the observer is what is important as time will move at different rates depending on where the observer is and how fast the observer is moving with respect to the object being observed. So then, an observer outside of a white hole would experience a different passage of time than an observer inside the white hole. Billions of years could pass outside the white hole event horizon while only a few days would pass for an observer inside the white hole event horizon.

If the earth were at the center of the white hole, an observer on the surface of the earth would record days while the rest of the universe experience billions of years of development. Well, Genesis 1:2 places the observer, the Holy Spirit, on the surface of the waters, which in this view we would say was all the matter and energy of the universe at that time. It seems to be implied that the Holy Spirit remains on the surface of the earth throughout the creation, so then 6 days are recorded from that perspective.

In the article, “What are white holes, and do they really exist?,” PhD Astrophysicist, Ethan Siegel, acknowledges all white hole cosmology upon which Humphrey’s bases his theory. Siegel, a secular scientist/physicist, writes that white holes are indeed possible and proposes a theory that very nicely dovetails with Humphreys’ explanation of the Genesis Creation account.[iii]

Genesis 1:1

I made the statement that we know that this statement in verse 1 is a summary for all of creation week, days 1–6. Therefore, “the beginning” must refer to all the creation week and not before because it says that God created the heavens and the earth, but heaven was not created until day 2 (Gen 1:8). The earth in verse 2 must refer to all matter in the universe, and heaven is not created until day 2.

Further, Jesus said in reference to the creation of Adam and Eve, “that He who created them from the beginning made them male and female” (Matt 19:4). Finally, Genesis 2:1–4 we have another summary of the seven days,

1          Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their hosts.

2          By the seventh day God completed His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done.

3          Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made.

4          This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven.

Notice the last verse, “this is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created,” and followed by “in the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven.” The emphasis is on the continuity of the seven days as being the time frame in which heaven and earth were created and made.

This conclusion completely eliminates the possibility of the Gap Theory. That theory proposes a period of time between verses 1 and 2, in which a vast amount of time could have occurred in which the dinosaurs lived, and, potentially, the evolution to bring about humanity.

Genesis 1:3

Creation didn’t occur as a direct result of God speaking. To say that misses the function of the Spirit of God who was present in creation according to Gen 1:2. Instead, creation occurred by the power of God, which the Spirit of God exerted or wielded upon creation in direct accord with what God had spoken. As recorded by Zechariah:

“Then he said to me, “This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel saying, ‘Not by might nor by power, but by My Spirit,’ says the Lord of hosts”” (Zech 4:6).

The command and action steps throughout the first six days sets up a pattern by which change occurs in creation. God speaks, the Spirit enacts. Nothing happens in the first six days that is not what God said to occur and what the Spirit enacted. It seems reasonable to say that nothing happens in creation on its own accord. If change occurs, even if it appears to follow natural laws, it occurs because the Word of God spoke and the Spirit brought it to pass. Ps 104:30; Is 40:13, 14.

Hence the meaning of John 1:1–3, Heb 1:3 and Col 1:17. The Apostle John writes,

1          In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

2          He was in the beginning with God.

3          All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being.

Speaking of the Son, the writer of Hebrews says,

And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature, and upholds all things by the word of His power. When He had made purification of sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high (Heb 1:3)

Paul likewise states:

16        For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things have been created through Him and for Him.

17        He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together.

The Word of God, Incarnated as Jesus Christ, is seen here in Genesis 1 as the One speaking. It is His design and intellect that is directing the creation of all things. Nothing occurs without it first being spoken by the Word of God. Then, it is by the power of the Spirit that the creation occurs.

Genesis 1:5

Jubilees 2:2–3 says that the LORD God created all the hosts of heaven (Deut 4:19; 17:3; 2 Kin 17:16; 21:3) on the first day. The hosts of heaven, in this respect, do not refer to the sun, moon, and stars, which were created on the fourth Day. Instead, hosts of heaven refers to the sons of God, which are variously called “angels,” “watchers,” “gods,” “prince,” and a number of other names.

           It is reasonable that the sons of God are created on the first day based on Job 38:4–7, which says,

4          “Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth?

Tell Me, if you have understanding,

5          Who set its measurements? Since you know.

Or who stretched the line on it?

6          “On what were its bases sunk?

Or who laid its cornerstone,

7          When the morning stars sang together

And all the sons of God shouted for joy?

If all things were created in six days, then the sons of God would have had to have been created during this time. Given that they were shouting for joy while the foundations of the earth were laid, then they would have had to been created no later than the second day when heaven was created and the earth was separated from it.

Genesis 1:7

See my notes on Gen 9:13

Direct scriptural reference to the water canopy that shielded man from many deleterious effects, which was taken down at the flood. In Gen 1:7 the waters above and below were separated and in Gen 1:9 the waters below were gathered into one place whereas the waters above were not, indicating they remained diffused (as gas or water vapor) above the earth. It is clearly indicated in Gen 1 that there was a significant amount of water diffused above the earth, in heaven, which would have been the sky over the earth. 

Genesis 1:8, “the expanse (lit. firmament) of heaven”

Three thoughts:

First, the expanse, or firmament, which God called heaven, is made here by the separation of “the waters” above the expanse from “the waters” below the expanse; therefore, “heaven” is for all intents and purposes, simply “space.” There are things created in the heavens, or heaven, but these are not heaven.

Second, the Hebrew word here for heaven is a plural (שָׁמַיִם šāmayim), and is a Plurale tantum, meaning that the noun only appears in its plural form. There is no singular form. So then, throughout the OT, the word “heaven” is actually the Hebrew word, “Heavens.”

So then, does this verse teach the creation of the heavens or some of them? This could be a reference to the creation of the first and second heavens, while the third heaven, the highest of heavens, is the abode of God Almighty. if this is the creation of the first and second heavens, then are we to glean from this text that earth was created first?

Third, it would seem that the objects in the first and second heavens were created from the same material, i.e., matter and energy, that the earth is created from.

KEY: What I believe is being pictured here is that God began the creation of the universe, the heavens and the earth, with a lump of matter and energy (Same as Big Bang theory, except not as a singularity).

TDOT Vol 15, 210 “Heaven”:

“The double idiom is to be understood as a superlative or (more precisely) an elative, meaning “the entire enormous expanse of heaven.”

Other natural phenomena that the OT commonly speaks of in immediate conjunction with šāmayim are spatially somewhat “lower.” These include the ʿāḇîm, ʿanānîm (usually singular), and šeḥāqîm, “clouds,” as well as their accompanying meteorological phenomena: gešem and māṭār, “rain”; reḇîḇîm, “showers”; šeleg̱, “snow”; ṭal, “dew”; kep̱ôr, “hoarfrost”; bārāḏ, “hail”; bārāq, “lightning”; and rûaḥ, “wind.”

[i] Russel Humphrey, Starlight and Time: Solving The Puzzle Of Distant Starlight In A Young Universe (Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 1994).

[ii] Rovelli, Carlo, White Holes (Riverhead Books, 2023).

[iii] Ethan Siegel, Online. Accessed 11 November 2023.

Genesis 1:8, “and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years”


Editing needed: Clarification About the Zodiac, Astrology, and Scripture

Astrology is the study of the apparent positions of celestial objects in order to discern information about human and terrestrial events. While “astrology,” as it is widely practiced today, is man-made, unbiblical, and gives undue worship and authority to created things, the basis upon which astrology is practiced is, in fact, created by God. On the fourth day of the creation week, we read, “Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years” (Gen 1:14). But, like everything that God created, Satan has adulterated and corrupted it for his own purposes. He has taken it as a means to draw people away from the Creator.

With that said, it is important to not overlook where Scripture records God’s design and use of the zodiac and celestial objects for signs of His plan and action in history. Let us not forget that God used a star to signal the birth of the King of Israel, Jesus (Num 24:17). By so doing, God beckoned the Magi to come and recognize Jesus as King. The Magi were simply not astrologers. The Magi, or wise men, were the governmental officials of the Empires of the Ancient Near East, and in this case, the Parthian Empire. The term “Magi” is where we get terms such as magistrate, majestic, magisterium, etc. They were in charge of coronating a new king. The fact that the entire world recognized the magi to have this authority is yet another reason why Herod was so upset when they arrived in Jerusalem looking for the new King of the Jews.

Going back to our discussion of the creation account, “Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years” (Gen 1:14). We all know that the Hebrew/Biblical calendar is based on the sun and moon, but this verse is talking about stars also. The statement “let them be for signs and seasons” is often overlooked. We just saw that one star was used as a sign for the birth of Jesus, but that was just one, and I have discussed elsewhere that I do not think that that was even a star anyway. I am convinced that that “star” was nothing other than the Shekinah glory cloud of God, the same one that lit up the sky over Bethlehem when the angels appeared to the shepherds (Luke 2:8-9). It also appeared again after the Magi met with Herod and led them directly to the house where Jesus was living (Matt 2:9-11).

So, in what way are the stars to be for “signs and seasons”? That’s a great question, I’m glad you asked! Well, I’m still trying to figure that one out, but I can tell you a couple of things that are very interesting, biblically; but first, some context. The zodiac, irrespective of any astrological meaning, is an ancient calendar system used to determine the beginnings of the four seasons. (It is still used by astronomers today to track the movement of objects in the solar system.) The four seasons, beginning at the winter and summer solstices (December 21–22 & June 20–22) and the vernal and autumnal equinoxes (March 20–21 & September 22–23) are known by when the sun’s apparent position as it passes through four constellations, or zodiac signs. Aries is considered the first sign of the zodiac and the vernal equinox (approximately March 21) The sun begins to pass through Aries on the first day of spring, which is the vernal equinox (March 20–21), then through

It takes 25,772 years for the Each astrological age lasts about 2,148 years; however, there is disagreement on whether the ages are 12 equal periods of time or if each age is unique, the sum of all twelve equates to the Great Year (25,772 years). The latter seems more likely since each constellation of the zodiac are different apparent sizes in the sky. So, some signs would take a shorter number of years than others.

Currently, we are in the age of Pisces, the age of the fish. What that means is that the vernal (spring) equinox the sun’s apparent position is in the constellation Pisces.

Remember when God told Abraham to sacrifice Isaac (Gen 22)? Isaac said to Abraham, “Behold, the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?” (Gen 22:7). Abraham responded by saying, “God will provide for Himself the lamb for the burnt offering, my son” (Gen 22:8). Then after the Angel of the Lord stopped Abraham from killing Isaac, we read that a ram was caught in a thicket (Gen 22:13). God did not provide a lamb, which would seem to be more appropriate since this is a picture of Jesus Christ, the lamb of God. Instead, He provided a lamb. Why? Even Abraham stated that God would provide a Himself a lamb in this very narrative (Gen 22:8), it seems apparent that we are meant to take note that a ram was provided rather than a lamb. So the change from lamb to Ram had to have a reason. If there was no reason, then why record the distinction between what Abraham expected, which is exactly what the NT declares Jesus to be (the lamb) and what God actually provided (the Ram)? So, what was the reason that God wants us to see?

I believe Timothy Alberino is correct in seeing God’s timetable in history. He argues that the ram indicates the timing of the birth and crucifixion of Jesus at the beginning of the age of Pisces, the fish (1 CE – 2150 CE), which would have been at the end of the age of Aries (2150 BCE – 1 CE), which is symbolized by the Ram. By the way, this event with Abraham and Isaac occurred near the beginning of the age of Aries (approximately 2050 BCE). Alberino states,

The ram represented when Christ would be born. He would be born when the Ram is bound to the sacrificial post at the beginning of the age of Pisces. That ram marked the age of Aries and the fact that it was bound up in the bushes and ready to be sacrificed indicated Christ would be appearing. The Son of God, God would send His Son His beloved Son when Aries was bound to the sacrificial post at the dawning of the age of Pisces.[i]

Something else could also be in view and a possible explanation for the ram in Genesis 22. Each year, the sun travels through the sign or constellation of Aries (ram) from approximately March 21 to April 19 each year. Guess what month this corresponds to in the Hebrew calendar? It corresponds to the month of Nisan, which is the first month of the Jewish year. More importantly, this is the same month for Passover when the Mosaic law prescribes each family to sacrifice a lamb. AND, most importantly, Jesus Himself was crucified on the 14th of Nisan, right in the middle of when Aries, the ram, is dominating the sky.

Some other interesting points to note, which may or may not be important, but are certainly interesting. The element for Aries is fire while the element for Pisces is water (of course). The ram was offered up as a burnt offering, while the Lamb, the Lord Jesus Christ, being born in the age of Pisces, was not. Instead, Jesus was baptized in the Jordan by John, “to fulfill all righteousness” (Matt 3:15). In fact, Jesus’ exact words were, “Permit it at this time; for in this way it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness.” Was Jesus giving us a clue by referring to “at this time”? Possibly. But as we look through the Gospels and Acts, we find that Jesus, and His followers even to today, are associated with both water (Baptism) and fish (the first symbol of Christianity). Jesus’ first miracle was to turn the water into wine (John 2:11) and “manifested His glory.” Those who enter into the kingdom of heaven must be born of water and of the Spirit (John 3:5). Jesus gives living water (John 4:7-15; 7:37f; Rev 7:17; 21:6; 22:1, 17). Jesus walked on the water (John 6:15-19). Jesus speaks of the Spirit as the water of life (John 7:38-39).

Given the above analysis, it is interesting to me that the next age that is soon arriving is the age of Aquarius, the “water bearer,” or “Man.” And I literally just had this thought. I had been confused as to why the next age would be the age of Man since Paul clearly labels the current “day” as “man’s day” (1 Cor 4:3, as opposed to the “Lord’s Day,” which will begin when Jesus comes [Rev 1:10; Phil 2:11; 2 Thess 1:10; 1 Cor 1:7–8]). It just occurred to me that it is during the age of Aquarius that the Lord Jesus Christ, the 100% pure, righteous Man comes to establish the kingdom of righteousness on earth and rules for a thousand years. The god of this world (2 Cor 4:4) is overthrown by the Man Christ Jesus and He returns the dominion of the earth to redeemed mankind. When Paul refers to “man’s day,” he is referring to sinful, fallen man who are walking according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air” (Eph 2:2). Mankind of this age are not rulers but servants to Satan.

Another interesting note is that the age before Aries is Taurus (4300–2150 BCE). Traditionally, scholars have placed the year of creation, based on biblical chronology, at approximately 4004 BCE. What is the element for Taurus? You guessed it. It is earth. So then, Scripture chronology places the creation of the earth (with the heavens) in the age whose element is earth. How crazy is that?!

Yet one more interesting “coincidence” is that Aquarius is an air sign (not a water sign. Go figure, right?). Well, near or at the beginning of this age is when Jesus returns and we, the church, are called to meet the Lord in the air (1 Thess 4:13-18). Each astrological age lasts about 2,148 years, and there is significant debate over when the age of Aquarius begins (Ray Grasse, Signs of the Times (2002), 5; cf. Some say it already has. But regardless, the coming of the Lord is soon, and this analysis is simply one of many that I am aware of that points to the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ as being very, very soon. Maybe even before you finish reading this sentence.

Remember Genesis 1:14? “Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years.” Maybe, just maybe, Scripture really is the Word of God.

Genesis 1:19


D. Russell Humphreys, Starlight and Time (1994, page 83), states that he believes the event horizon of the white hole in which the universe began would have shrunk down to the earth on the fourth day. He writes,

[Appendix B of the same book] shows evidence that the biblical cosmos has finite boundaries, and that our earth is near the center. If we put those boundary conditions into the equations of Einstein’s general theory of relativity, we get an expanding cosmos in which clocks (and all physical processes) tick at different rates in different parts of the universe. The physics is that of a universe-sized “white hole” (a black hole running in reverse), with a shrinking event horizon and matter expanding out of it. At the event horizon, clocks would be momentarily stopped relative to clocks further out. At one critical moment of the expansion, the event horizon would reach the earth, and clocks there would also momentarily stop.

I propose that the critical moment arrived on earth during the fourth day of creation. During that day, billions of years would elapse in the distant sky, allowing light from galaxies to reach the earth within one ordinary day of earth’s time.

Genesis 1:26 “Let Us”


See my note on Gen 2:1 “and all their hosts.”

Genesis 1:26 “Make man in Our Image, . . .”


Many theologians have debated what it means for mankind to have been made in the image of God, but the idea that this represents an actual physical image and likeness is widely disregarded since God is a Spirit. Nowhere that I have seen has anyone brought attention to the statements in Gen 5:1-3 where there is a parallelism being used. Genesis 5:1 says that God made man in the likeness of God and then Genesis 5:3 says that Adam “became the father of a son in his own likeness, according to his image,” which is the same phrase used in Genesis 1:26 for God’s creation of Adam, male and female. This comparison cannot be a coincidence. Does this somehow support a visible representation? Or is it simply saying that Adam’s son is also an image bearer also, which would still be non-physical.

I believe both ideas are in view.

Genesis 1:31 “it was very good”


Michael Heiser argues to be careful that your own ideas are not imported into the biblical text that are not there. Here, for example, scripture says that God’s creation was very good; however, good does not mean perfect. If it were perfect, then there would be no reason for God to tell Adam and Eve to be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it.

Also, regarding Romans 5:12, we are not to assume that there was no death based on this verse. Paul is talking about death spreading to Adam and Eve.

[i] Alberino, Blurry Creatures Podcast, Ep 139.